The quadratus femoris muscle originates from the lateral margin of the ischial tuberosity. It inserts into the quadrate tubercle on the intertrochanteric crest between the greater and lesser trochanter. The quadratus femoris is one of the six external rotators of the hip. It also helps adduct the thigh. It is innervated from the nerve from the sacral plexus called “Nerve to Quadratus Femorsi” (L5, S1). It supplies the quadratus femoris and the inferior gemellus muscles. The sciatic nerve crosses over the quadratus femoris muscle.
There are six short external rotators of the hip: Piriformis M, Superior Gemellus M, Obturator Internus M, Inferior Gemellus M, Obturator Externus M, and Quadratus Femoris M. The nerve to the quadratus femoris innervates two muscles: the inferior gemellus and the quadratus femoris. The medial femoral circumflex artery (MCFA) courses anterior to the superior edge of the quadratus muscle. The MCFA can be identified in the space between the quadratus femoris muscle (superior edge of the quadratus femoris muscle) and the inferior gemellus. Quadriceps femoris muscle detachment from the femur during the posterior approach to the hip may cause profuse bleeding. This bleeding most likely occurs from a branch of the medial femoral circumflex artery.
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